What are gallstones?

Gallstones are solid deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones can range in size from tiny grains to golf ball-sized stones and can cause a range of symptoms.

Who's at risk for gallstones?

Anyone can develop gallstones, but certain groups of people are at higher risk, including:

  • Women, particularly those who have had multiple pregnancies or use estrogen-based contraceptives
  • People over the age of 40
  • People with a family history of gallstones
  • People who are overweight or obese
  • People with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or Crohn's disease


What causes gallstones?

Gallstones can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Imbalance of bile components, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, which can lead to the formation of solid deposits in the gallbladder
  • Reduced gallbladder contractions, which can cause bile to stagnate and solidify
  • Inflammation or infection of the gallbladder, which can promote the formation of gallstones

How do gallstones start?

Gallstones typically start as small deposits in the gallbladder and may grow in size or number over time. Some gallstones may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging tests for other medical conditions.

What are the symptoms of gallstones?

The symptoms of gallstones may vary depending on the size and location of the stones, but may include:

  • Abdominal pain or discomfort, particularly in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Jaundice, which can cause yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • Fever or chills, particularly in cases of infection or inflammation
  • Bloating or gas

How are gallstones diagnosed?

Diagnosing gallstones involves a comprehensive evaluation of a person's symptoms, medical history, and physical exam, as well as imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the presence and location of the stones.

How can gallstones be treated?

Treatment for gallstones may involve a range of interventions, including:

  • Observation and monitoring, particularly for asymptomatic or small gallstones that do not require immediate treatment
  • Medications, such as bile acid therapy, which may help dissolve small cholesterol stones
  • Surgery, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which involves removing the gallbladder and stones
  • Endoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which involves removing stones from the bile ducts

What complications may occur with gallstones?

If left untreated or poorly managed, gallstones can lead to a range of complications, including:

  • Inflammation or infection of the gallbladder, also known as cholecystitis
  • Blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice or pancreatitis
  • Development of cancer or other diseases of the gallbladder or bile ducts

How can I prevent gallstones?

Preventing gallstones involves a range of strategies, including:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding rapid weight loss or gain
  • Eating a balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol
  • Increasing physical activity and exercise
  • Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption

Long-term management of gallstones

Managing gallstones over the long term involves ongoing monitoring of symptoms, regular healthcare provider visits, and following a treatment plan as prescribed by a healthcare provider. It may also involve making lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

What is recent research saying about gallstones?

Recent research in gallstones has focused on improving detection and prevention of the condition, as well as developing new treatments and therapies to improve outcomes and prevent complications. Some of the promising areas of research include:

  • Development of new medications or drug combinations, which may be more effective at dissolving or preventing gallstones than current treatments
  • Use of non-invasive imaging techniques, such as MRI or CT scans, to improve detection and monitoring of gallstones
  • Investigation of the role of gut microbiota in the formation of gallstones, which may lead to new approaches to prevention and treatment

Where can I go for more information on gallstones?

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with gallstones or wants more information on how to prevent the condition, it is important to seek help from a healthcare provider who specializes in the treatment of digestive disorders. The following organizations also provide information and resources on gallstones: