Health Terms and Topics

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Abdomen: The part of the body between the chest and pelvis that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs.

Abscess: A localized collection of pus, usually caused by infection.

Acid reflux: a condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.

Acne: A common skin condition characterized by pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, chest, and back.

Acromegaly: a hormonal disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone, which can lead to enlargement of the hands, feet, and other body parts.

Acupuncture: A form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves inserting thin needles into the skin at specific points to relieve pain or treat various health conditions.

Acute: sudden onset of symptoms or a short-term illness or injury.

Addison's disease: A rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones.

Adenocarcinoma: a type of cancer that originates in the glandular cells, which are responsible for producing and secreting fluids or mucus in various organs of the body.

Adenoma: a benign tumor that originates in glandular tissue.

Adhesion: a band of scar tissue that forms between two organs or tissues, often causing them to stick together.

Adrenal glands: Small glands located on top of the kidneys that produce hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.

Adrenalectomy: The surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.

Aerobic exercise: Exercise that requires the body to use oxygen, such as running, swimming, or biking.

Agenesis: The absence of an organ or body part.

Agglutination: The clumping of cells together, usually due to the presence of antibodies.

Agitation: A state of restlessness and anxiety.

Albumin: A protein found in blood and other body fluids.

Allergen: A substance that triggers an allergic reaction in some people, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.

Allergy: an immune response to a substance that is usually harmless.

Alopecia: hair loss, typically from the scalp.

Alzheimer's disease: A progressive brain disorder that causes memory loss, confusion, and other cognitive problems.

Ambulatory: able to walk or move around.

Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods.

Amyloidosis: a group of rare diseases caused by the buildup of amyloid protein in various tissues and organs.

Anemia: a condition in which the body doesn't have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin to carry oxygen throughout the body.

Anesthesia: the use of medication to induce loss of sensation or consciousness for medical procedures.

Anesthesiologist:  a medical doctor who specializes in administering anesthesia.

Aneurysm: a bulge or weakening of an artery wall that can potentially rupture and cause life-threatening bleeding.

Angina: chest pain or discomfort caused by reduced blood flow and a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle.

Angiogram: a medical imaging test used to visualize blood vessels in the body.

Angioplasty: A medical procedure to widen a narrowed or blocked artery by inserting a balloon into the artery and inflating it.

Ankle sprain: An injury to the ligaments that support the ankle joint.

Ankylosing spondylitis: a type of arthritis that primarily affects the spine.

Anorexia nervosa: a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight and refusal to eat enough food. An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation.

Anoscopy: A procedure to examine the inside of the anus and rectum.

Anoxia: a severe lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues or organs.

Antibody: a protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses.

Antibiotic: a medication used to treat bacterial infections.

Anticoagulant: a medication that prevents blood from clotting.

Antidepressant: a medication used to treat depression and other mental health conditions.

Antigen: a substance that can trigger an immune response and produce antibodies.

Antipsychotic: a medication used to treat mental health conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Anuria: The absence of urine production.

Anxiety: a mental health condition characterized by feelings of worry or fear.

Aorta: The main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Aphasia: a language disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate.

APOE4 Alzheimer's gene: a variant of the APOE gene that has been strongly associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a progressive brain disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. Individuals who inherit one or two copies of the APOE4 gene have an increased likelihood of developing Alzheimer's compared to those with other variants of the APOE gene.

Appendicitis: Inflammation of the appendix, a small, finger-shaped organ that projects from the colon, which can cause abdominal pain and fever.

Apnea: a temporary cessation of breathing, often during sleep.

Aromatherapy: The use of essential oils to promote health and well-being.

Arrhythmia: an irregular heartbeat.

Arteriosclerosis: hardening and thickening of the walls of the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke.

Arthritis: inflammation of the joints, causing pain and stiffness.

Ascites: The accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

Aseptic technique: a set of practices used to prevent contamination during medical procedures.

Aspartamea low-calorie artificial sweetener used as a sugar substitute in many food and beverage products. It is composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, and a small amount of methanol. Aspartame is significantly sweeter than sugar but provides fewer calories, making it a popular choice for individuals seeking a sugar-free or reduced-calorie alternative.

Asphyxia: a condition in which the body is deprived of oxygen, often due to suffocation or choking.

Aspirin: a medication used to relieve pain, reduce fever, and prevent blood clots.

Asthma: a chronic respiratory condition affecting the lungs characterized by wheezing coughing, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing.

Asymptomatic: having no symptoms of a disease or condition.

Ataxia: a lack of muscle coordination, often caused by damage to the nervous system.

Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries, narrowing the arteries and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Atrial fibrillation: an irregular heartbeat that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure.

Atrioventricular: pertaining to the atria and ventricles of the heart.

Atrophy: the wasting away or shrinking of tissue or an organ.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by persistent inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, affecting daily functioning and development.

Audiologist: a healthcare professional who specializes in diagnosing and treating hearing and balance disorders.

Autism spectrum disorder: a developmental disorder that affects communication and social interaction.

Autoimmune disease: A condition in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues.

Autoimmune Vasculitis: a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and damage to blood vessels, caused by a misdirected immune response. This inflammation can restrict blood flow and result in organ and tissue damage. The specific blood vessels and organs affected, as well as the severity of the disease, can vary significantly depending on the type of vasculitis.

Avulsion fracture: A fracture that occurs when a piece of bone is torn away from the rest of the bone.


Back pain: Back pain is a discomfort that can range from mild to severe, affecting the muscles, ligaments, nerves, or spine, often resulting from factors such as poor posture, injuries, or degenerative conditions.

Bacteria: single-celled microorganisms that can cause disease or be beneficial to the body.

Bacterial meningitis: a serious infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.

Bacterial vaginosis: an infection in the vagina caused by an overgrowth of bacteria.

Bariatric surgery: surgical procedures performed to help people lose weight.

Barium enema: A test that uses barium, a white contrast material, to examine the large intestine.

Barium swallowa medical imaging test used to examine the esophagus and stomach.

Basal cell carcinoma: a type of skin cancer that originates in the basal cells of the skin's outermost layer, often appearing as a slow-growing, non-melanoma skin lesion.

Basophils a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites.

Behavioral therapya type of therapy that focuses on changing patterns of behavior to improve mental health.

Bell's Palsy: a condition that causes sudden, temporary weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles, often affecting just one side of the face. This is caused by damage to the facial nerve, and while the exact cause is unknown, it's often linked to viral infections such as herpes simplex, which causes cold sores.

Benign: Not cancerous or harmful.

Beta-blockera medication used to treat high blood pressure and other conditions.

Beta cellscells in the pancreas that produce insulin.

Bilea greenish-yellow fluid produced by the liver that helps with the digestion of fats.

Biliary cancer: also known as bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that forms in the small, tube-like bile ducts within the liver. These ducts carry bile, a fluid that aids in digestion, to the gallbladder. Biliary cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages due to its vague symptoms, making it challenging to treat.

Binge eating disordera mental health condition characterized by frequent episodes of overeating.

Biopsythe removal of tissue for examination to diagnose a disease or condition.

Bipolar disordera mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings between depression and mania.

Birth controlmethods used to prevent pregnancy.

Blackout: a temporary loss of consciousness or memory.

Bladderthe organ that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body.

Bladder cancercancer that starts in the cells lining the bladder.

Blepharitis: a common eye condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelids, typically causing redness, itching, and irritation.

Blistera small pocket of fluid that forms on the skin.

Bloodthe vital fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

Blood clota mass of blood that forms to stop bleeding or as a result of abnormal blood flow.

Blood glucosethe level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Blood pressure: The force of blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood throughout the body.

Blood sugar: The amount of sugar in the blood.

Blood testa laboratory test that measures various substances in the blood to diagnose or monitor a disease or condition.

Blood transfusionthe transfer of blood from one person to another.

Blood urea nitrogena measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from the waste product urea.

Blood vessela tube that carries blood throughout the body, including arteries, veins, and capillaries.

Bonethe hard, mineralized tissue that forms the skeleton.

Bone cancerBone cancer is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells within the bone tissue, which can lead to pain, swelling, and weakened bones.

Bone density: the amount of mineral in bone tissue, which is an indicator of bone strength.

Bone marrowthe spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells.

Botulisma rare and potentially life-threatening illness caused by a toxin produced by certain types of bacteria.

Bowel: the part of the digestive system that includes the small and large intestines.

Bowel obstruction: A blockage of the intestines.

Bradycardiaa slow heart rate.

Brainthe complex organ responsible for consciousness, thought, and movement.

Brainstemthe part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls basic bodily functions such as breathing and heart rate.

Brain tumor: A growth of abnormal cells in the brain.

Breastthe glandular tissue on the chest that produces milk in females.

Breast cancercancer that starts in the cells of the breast.

Breathingthe process of inhaling and exhaling air to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.

Bronchial tubesthe tubes that carry air to the lungs.

Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes in the lungs, usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

Bronchodilatora medication used to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions by relaxing the muscles around the airways.

Bronchopneumonia: inflammation of the lungs that affects the bronchioles and alveoli.

Bronchoscopya medical procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is used to examine the airways in the lungs.

Brucellosis: a bacterial infection transmitted from animals to humans, usually through the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or direct contact with infected animals. It can cause a range of symptoms from fever, fatigue, and muscle pain to more serious complications like inflammation of the heart or central nervous system if left untreated.

Bruise: A purplish or black mark on the skin caused by a blow to the body.

Bruxisma condition characterized by grinding or clenching of the teeth, often during sleep.

Bulimia nervosaAn eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging, often through vomiting or laxative use.

Burns: Injuries to the skin or other tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation.

Bursitisinflammation of a fluid-filled sac near a joint.


Cachexia: A wasting away of the body due to disease.

Calcificationthe accumulation of calcium in body tissues.

Cancer: A group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.

Carcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the cells that line the organs and tissues of the body.

Carotid artery: an artery that supplies blood to the brain.

Cardiomyopathya disease of the heart muscle that can cause heart failure.

Cardiac arrest: The sudden stopping of the heart.

Cardiologist: A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease.

Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the heart muscle.

Cardiopulmonary: relating to the heart and lungs.

Cardiovascular: relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular disease: A disease of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardioversion: a procedure in which an electrical shock is used to restore a normal heart rhythm.

Carpal tunnel syndrome: a condition in which the median nerve in the wrist is compressed, causing pain and numbness in the hand and fingers.

Cataracts: a clouding of the lens of the eye that can cause vision loss.

Catheter: a flexible tube inserted into the body to remove or deliver fluids.

Catheterization: The insertion of a tube into a body cavity or vessel.

Cavitation: refers to the formation of empty spaces or voids within tissues or organs, often resulting from various factors such as infection, tissue necrosis, or the presence of gas, which can disrupt normal functioning and potentially lead to complications.

Celiac disease: an autoimmune disorder in which the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, triggers an immune response that damages the small intestine, leading to malabsorption of nutrients and a range of symptoms.

Cellulitis: a bacterial skin infection that can cause redness, swelling, and pain and may spread to underlying tissues.

Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord.

Cephalic: relating to the head.

Cephalopelvic disproportion: a condition in which the baby's head is too large to fit through the mother's pelvis during childbirth.

Cerebral: relating to the brain.

Cerebral palsy: a group of neurological disorders that affect movement and posture.

Cerebrospinal fluid: a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, acting as a protective cushion and providing nutrients and waste removal for the central nervous system.

Cerebrovascular: relating to the blood vessels of the brain.

Cervical cancer: cervical cancer is a malignant growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina, often caused by persistent infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

Chemotherapy: a treatment for cancer that uses drugs to kill cancer cells.

Chikungunya: a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It's characterized by an abrupt onset of fever frequently accompanied by joint pain, and while the illness is typically self-limiting and rarely fatal, joint pain can often be severe and debilitating.

Chlamydia: A sexually transmitted infection.

Cholecystectomy: a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis: inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholesterol: A waxy substance found in the blood that is important for the production of hormones and cell membranes that can build up in the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease.

Chondroitin: a substance found in cartilage that is often used as a dietary supplement.

Chronic: Lasting a long time or recurring frequently, often used to describe medical conditions.

Chronic Fatigue SyndromeChronic fatigue syndrome is a complex, long-term disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that does not improve with rest and can worsen with physical or mental activity, often accompanied by other unexplained symptoms.

Chronic kidney disease: Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, potentially leading to kidney failure and various health complications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Chronic painChronic pain is a persistent, long-lasting pain that persists for more than three months, often resulting from an injury, disease, or a poorly understood origin, which can significantly impact an individual's daily functioning and quality of life.

Circulation: the movement of blood through the body.

Cirrhosis: A scarring of the liver.

Clotting factors: proteins in the blood that help with the clotting process.

Coagulation: the process of blood clotting.

Cognition - the mental processes involved in thinking, learning, and remembering.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): a psychotherapeutic approach that focuses on identifying and modifying negative thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors to promote positive psychological well-being.

Colitisinflammation of the colon.

Colonoscopy: a medical procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is used to examine the inside of the colon.

Colorectal cancera malignant growth that occurs in the colon or rectum, originating from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the lining of the large intestine, often developing from precancerous polyps.

Coma: a state of prolonged unconsciousness.

Combined Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID): a group of disorders characterized by a defect in the immune system that results in a reduced ability to fight off infections. People with CVID are susceptible to recurrent infections and often experience complications like autoimmune disorders, chronic lung disease, and lymphomas.

Common colda viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, primarily caused by rhinoviruses, which typically results in mild symptoms such as a runny nose, sore throat, cough, and congestion, lasting for a short duration.

Comorbidity: the presence of two or more medical conditions at the same time.

Concussion: a type of brain injury caused by a blow to the head.

Congenital: present at birth.

Congenital heart defect: a heart abnormality that is present at birth.

Conjunctivitis: inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye.

Congestive heart failure: a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

Constipationa common digestive condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stool, or the sensation of incomplete evacuation, often resulting from factors such as a low-fiber diet, dehydration, or lack of physical activity.

Contact dermatitis: a type of skin inflammation caused by contact with a substance.

Contraception: the use of devices or methods to prevent pregnancy.

Contractility: the ability of a muscle to contract.

Contracture: a permanent shortening of a muscle or joint that can result in a deformity.

Coronary artery disease: a condition in which the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked.

Corticosteroid: a type of hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate inflammation and the immune system.

Cortisol: a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps the body respond to stress.

Creatinine: a waste product produced by the muscles that is removed from the blood by the kidneys.

Crohn's diseasea chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss, with periods of flare-ups and remission.

Cyst: a sac or cavity filled with fluid or air.

Cystectomy: a surgical procedure to remove the bladder.

Cystic fibrosis: a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, and other organs.

Cytology: the study of cells.


Debridement: the removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound.

Decubitus ulcera pressure sore that develops when a person stays in one position for too long.

Deep vein thrombosis: a blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.

Dermatitis: inflammation of the skin.

Defibrillator: a medical device used to deliver an electrical shock to the heart in order to restore a normal rhythm.

Dehydration: a condition in which the body loses more fluid than it takes in.

Delirium: a state of confusion and disorientation.

Delusiona false belief that is not based in reality.

Dementia: A group of symptoms that affect memory, language, reasoning, behaviors, and social abilities, often caused by Alzheimer's disease or other brain disorders.

Dendrite: a branch-like extension of a nerve cell that receives signals from other cells.

Dental caries: A medical term for tooth decay or cavities.

Depression: A mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, lack of energy, and loss of interest in daily activities.

Dermatome: an area of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve. Each spinal nerve supplies sensation to a particular dermatome, creating a specific pattern of sensory distribution throughout the body.

Dermatomyositis: a rare autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and a distinctive rash on the skin.

Diabetes: A group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels, often caused by a lack of insulin production or insulin resistance.

Diabetes type 1an autoimmune disease characterized by the body's inability to produce insulin, resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, which leads to elevated blood sugar levels.

Diabetes type 2: a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and a relative deficiency in insulin production, leading to elevated blood sugar levels and an increased risk of long-term complications.

Diabetic ketoacidosis: a serious complication of diabetes characterized by high levels of ketones in the blood.

Diabetic nephropathy: kidney damage caused by diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy: damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye caused by diabetes.

Diagnosis: the process of identifying a disease or condition.

Diagnostic: Pertaining to the process of identifying a disease or condition.

Diagnostic imagingmedical imaging tests used to diagnose diseases and conditions.

Dialysis: a medical treatment that removes waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.

Diaphragm: the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and plays a role in breathing.

Diarrhea: a condition in which bowel movements are frequent and watery.

Digestion: the process of breaking down food in the body.

Digestive system: The organs and structures involved in the process of breaking down food and absorbing nutrients, including the stomach, intestines, and liver.

Digital rectal exam: a physical exam in which a doctor inserts a finger into the rectum to check for abnormalities in the prostate gland or other nearby structures.

Dihydrotestosterone: a hormone that plays a role in male pattern baldness and prostate enlargement.

Dilation: the widening of a blood vessel or other opening in the body.

Dilatation and curettage: a surgical procedure in which the lining of the uterus is scraped to remove tissue.

Diphtheria: a bacterial infection that can cause difficulty breathing and heart failure.

Diplopia: A medical term for double vision, often caused by problems with the eyes or nerves that control eye movement.

Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches in the colon become inflamed, often causing abdominal pain and fever.

Dizziness: a sensation of lightheadedness or unsteadiness.

Diuretic: a medication that increases urine production and helps remove excess fluid from the body.

Dolor: pain.

Dopaminea neurotransmitter that plays a role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers.

Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome, often characterized by intellectual disability and physical abnormalities.

Dry eye syndromea multifactorial condition characterized by inadequate tear production or excessive tear evaporation, resulting in discomfort, visual disturbances, and potential damage to the ocular surface.

Dry mouth: A condition in which the mouth becomes dry due to a lack of saliva production, often caused by medications or certain medical conditions.

Ductal carcinoma in situa type of breast cancer that has not spread beyond the milk ducts.

Ductus arteriosus: a blood vessel in a developing fetus that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta.

Duodenum: the first part of the small intestine.

Dysarthria: difficulty speaking due to muscle weakness or neurological problems.

Dysbiosis: an imbalance in the microbial populations within the body, especially in the gut.

Dyskinesia: involuntary movements of the body.

Dyslexiaa neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects reading and writing skills, characterized by difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, decoding, and spelling, often due to a deficit in the phonological component of language.

Dysmenorrhea: painful menstrual periods.

Dysmenorrheal: pertaining to painful menstrual periods

Dysplasiaabnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs.

Dyspneadifficulty breathing.

Dysgeusia: a distortion of taste perception.

Dyslipidemia: abnormal levels of cholesterol or other fats in the blood.

Dyspareunia: persistent or recurrent pain experienced during sexual intercourse, which can be caused by a variety of physical or psychological factors and can affect both men and women.

Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing.

Dysphonic - relating to or characterized by difficulty in speaking.

Dysphoria: a state of unease or dissatisfaction.

Dystonia: a movement disorder characterized by muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.

Dysuria: painful urination.


Ear infections: infections of the middle or outer ear caused by bacteria or viruses, leading to inflammation, fluid buildup, and pain or discomfort in the affected ear.

Echocardiogram: a test that uses sound waves to create images of the heart.

Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy that occurs outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes.

Eczema: A chronic skin condition that causes dry skin with itching, redness, and inflammation, often triggered by allergies or stress.

Eczematousrelating to or resembling eczema.

Edema: swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in body tissues.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, is used to diagnose heart problems.

Emergency room: The part of a hospital that provides immediate medical care to patients with serious or life-threatening conditions.

Endocrine system: The system of glands that produce hormones, which regulate various bodily functions.

Epilepsy: A neurological disorder that causes seizures, often triggered by abnormal brain activity.

Electrocardiogram (EKG): A test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.

Electroencephalogram (EEG): A test that measures the electrical activity of the brain.

Electrolyte: a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water and is essential for many bodily functions.

Electrolyte imbalance: an abnormal concentration of electrolytes in the body.

Electrophysiology: the study of the electrical properties of cells and tissues in the body.

Embolism: a blockage of a blood vessel caused by a blood clot or other foreign material.

Embryonic stem cells: cells that have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body.

Emphysema: A lung disease that causes the air sacs in the lungs to break down, making it difficult to breathe.

Emerging infection: a newly identified or previously unknown infectious disease that is increasing in incidence or has the potential to increase in incidence in the near future.

Emulsion: a mixture of two liquids that are normally immiscible.

Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a viral infection.

Endarterectomy: a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the inner lining of an artery.

Endocrine: relating to the glands that produce hormones.

Endometrial cancer: cancer that originates in the lining of the uterus.

Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.

Endoscope: a medical instrument used to view the inside of the body.

Endoscopy: a medical procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is used to examine the inside of the body.

End-stage: the final stage of a disease, often when treatment is no longer effective.

Enlarged prostate: a condition in which the prostate gland becomes larger than normal and can cause urinary problems.

Enteral nutrition: the delivery of nutrition directly into the gastrointestinal tract.

Enteritis: inflammation of the small intestine.

Enterostomy: a surgical procedure in which an opening is created in the abdomen to allow waste to exit the body.

Enzyme: a type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.

Eosinophila type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune system.

Epidemic: a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.

Epidural - a type of anesthesia that numbs the lower part of the body.

Epilepsy: A neurological disorder that causes seizures.

Epinephrine: a hormone that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Episiotomy: a surgical incision made in the perineum to enlarge the birth canal during childbirth.

Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection.

Erythema: redness of the skin caused by inflammation or infection.

Erythrocyte: a red blood cell.

Erythromycin: an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.

Erythropoietin: a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

Eschar: a dry, dark scab or slough that forms on the skin as a result of tissue necrosis.

Esophagus: the muscular tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach.

Esophageal cancer: Cancer that starts in the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach.

Essential hypertension: high blood pressure that has no identifiable cause.

Estrogen: a hormone that plays a role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics.

Eustachian tube: a small tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the throat.

Exacerbateto make a condition worse.

Exacerbation: a sudden worsening of symptoms in a chronic disease.

Excision: surgical removal of tissue or an organ.

Exocrine: relating to glands that secrete their products into ducts.

Exocrine gland: a gland that secretes its products into ducts that lead to a body surface or cavity.

Exophthalmos: abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.

Exostosisa bony growth on the surface of a bone.

Extracorporeal: outside of the body.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO): a life-support technique that provides prolonged cardiac and/or respiratory support by circulating blood through an artificial lung or oxygenator outside the body.

Exudate: fluid that leaks out of blood vessels and collects in body tissues.


Facelift: a cosmetic surgical procedure that tightens the skin on the face to reduce wrinkles and sagging.

Facet jointa small joint between the vertebrae in the spine.

Fascia: a network of connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, organs, and other structures in the body, providing structural integrity, transmitting forces, and allowing for coordination and movement.

Fasting blood sugara test that measures blood sugar levels after a period of fasting.

Fat embolisma condition in which fat particles are released into the bloodstream and can cause damage to the lungs or other organs.

Fat-solubleable to dissolve in fats and oils.

Fatigue: a feeling of tiredness or lack of energy.

Fatty acida type of molecule that is a building block of fat.

Fatty livera condition in which fat accumulates in the liver.

Fecal occult blood testa test that detects the presence of hidden blood in the stool.

Febrilerelating to or characterized by fever.

Fertilitythe ability to conceive and produce offspring.

Fetal alcohol syndromea group of physical and mental birth defects that can occur in a baby whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

Fetal distressa condition in which a fetus is not receiving enough oxygen.

Fetal monitora device used to monitor the heart rate of a fetus during labor and delivery.

Fetus: an unborn offspring of a mammal, specifically an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception.

Feveran elevation of body temperature above the normal range.

Fibrillation: rapid and irregular contractions of the heart muscle.

Fibroblast: a type of cell that produces collagen and other fibers in connective tissue.

Fibroid: a benign tumor that grows in the uterus.

Fibrin: a protein involved in blood clotting.

Fibrinogen: a protein produced by the liver that is converted into fibrin during blood clotting.

Fibrinogen level: a blood test that measures the amount of fibrinogen in the blood.

Fibrinolysis: the process of breaking down fibrin in blood clots.

Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and tender points in the muscles and joints.

Fibrosis: the development of fibrous tissue in an organ or tissue, often as a result of injury or inflammation.

Fissure: a narrow crack or opening in a tissue or organ.

Fistula: an abnormal connection or passageway between two organs or tissues.

Fixed drug eruption: a skin reaction that occurs when a person is exposed to a particular medication.

Flank pain: pain in the area of the body between the rib cage and the hip.

Flatulence: the presence of excessive gas in the digestive system.

Flavonoid: a type of plant compound that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Flu (influenza)a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses, characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, which can range from mild to severe and may lead to complications or even death in vulnerable populations.

Folate: a B vitamin that is important for the growth and development of cells, often found in leafy greens, beans, and fortified cereals.

Follicle: a small sac in the ovary that contains an egg.

Follicular lymphoma: a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

Focal: relating to a specific area or point.

Food allergy: an immune system reaction to a specific food, often causing symptoms such as hives, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

Food poisoningan illness caused by consuming contaminated food or beverages, typically resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, which can vary in severity and duration depending on the causative agent.

Foot dropa condition in which the muscles that lift the foot become weak or paralyzed.

Forensic medicine: the branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues.

Fracture: a break in a bone, often caused by trauma or injury.

Frailty: a condition characterized by weakness, fatigue, and decreased physical function in older adults.

Fragile X syndrome:  a genetic disorder that causes intellectual disability and other developmental problems.

Freezing: see frostbite.

Frostbite: a condition caused by exposure to cold temperatures, characterized by skin discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.

Fructose:  a type of sugar found in fruits and honey.

Frustration:  a feeling of irritation or disappointment as a result of being unable to achieve a goal or fulfill a need.

Fungal infection:  An infection caused by a fungus, often affecting the skin, nails, or respiratory system.

Fungi: microscopic organisms that can cause infections and diseases, including athlete's foot and ringworm.

Fundus: the upper part of the stomach that lies above the level of the lower esophageal sphincter.

Fungus: a type of organism that can cause infections in humans.

Flu: short for influenza, is a viral infection that affects the respiratory system and is manifested by symptoms of fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, and other symptoms.

Fluorescein: a fluorescent dye used in medical imaging tests.

Fluoride: a mineral that helps strengthen teeth and prevent cavities.

Fluoroscopy: a medical imaging technique that uses a continuous X-ray beam to produce real-time images of the body.

Fovea: a small pit in the retina of the eye that is responsible for sharp central vision.

Fungal: relating to or caused by fungi.


Gallbladder: a small, pear-shaped organ that stores bile, a fluid that helps the body digest fat.

Gallstoneshardened deposits of bile, cholesterol, or bilirubin that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain, inflammation, and complications if they obstruct the bile ducts.

Galactosemia: a rare genetic disorder in which the body is unable to break down galactose, a type of sugar found in milk.

Ganglion: a cluster of nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Gangrene: tissue death caused by a lack of blood flow or infection.

Gastric bypass: a type of weight loss surgery that reduces the size of the stomach and reroutes the small intestine.

Gastric ulcer: a sore or hole in the lining of the stomach.

Gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

Gastroenterologist: a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive disorders.

Gastroenterology: the branch of medicine that deals with the digestive system.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease: a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus.

Gastrointestinal: relating to the stomach and intestines.

Gastrointestinal bleeding:  bleeding in the digestive tract, often caused by ulcers or inflammation.

Gastrointestinal tract: the organs that make up the digestive system, including the stomach, intestines, and liver.

Gastroscopy: a medical procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is used to examine the inside of the stomach.

Genetic: pertaining to genes, the hereditary material that determines physical and biological traits.

Genetic counseling: the process of helping people understand and manage the risks associated with genetic conditions.

Genetics: the study of heredity and inherited traits.

Genital herpes: a sexually transmitted infection that causes blisters on the genitals.

Genital warts: a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Geriatrician: a physician who specializes in the health and care of the elderly.

Geriatrics: the medical specialty that focuses on the health and care of elderly patients.

Germline mutation: a genetic mutation that is present in the egg or sperm cells and can be passed on to offspring.

Gingiva: the gums that surround and support the teeth.

Gingivitis: inflammation of the gums.

Glioblastoma: a type of brain cancer.

Glaucoma: a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, often causing vision loss or blindness.

Glomerular filtration rate: a measure of how well the kidneys are filtering waste products from the blood.

Glomerulitis - inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney.

Glomerulonephritis:  inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney.

Glomerulopathy: a disease that affects the glomeruli in the kidney.

Glomerulus: a tiny ball-shaped structure in the kidney that filters blood.

Glucocorticoid: a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels and immune function.

Glucose: a sugar that serves as the primary source of energy for the body.

Glucose meter: a device used to measure blood sugar levels.

Glycemic index: a measure of how quickly a food raises blood sugar levels.

Glycogen: a complex sugar that serves as a stored form of energy in the body.

Gonadotropin: a hormone that stimulates the gonads, the reproductive organs in males and females.

Gonorrhea: a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Gout: a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe pain, redness, and swelling in the joints.

Graft: a piece of tissue or an organ that is transplanted from one person to another.

Gravid: pregnant.

Guillain-Barré Syndromea rare neurological disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nerves, causing rapid-onset muscle weakness and potentially leading to paralysis.



Hashimoto's disease: an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, leading to chronic inflammation and potentially causing hypothyroidism.

Headache: A common condition characterized by pain or discomfort in the head.

Heart attack: A medical emergency in which the blood flow to the heart is blocked, often causing damage to the heart muscle.

Heartburn: a burning sensation in the chest caused by stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus, often resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or other factors affecting the lower esophageal sphincter.

Heart disease: A group of conditions that affect the heart, including heart attack, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Hematology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders.

Hemophilia: an inherited genetic bleeding disorder characterized by the inability of blood to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding and prolonged healing times after injuries or surgeries.

Hemorrhage: The loss of blood from the body, often caused by injury or disease.

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or alcohol abuse.

Hepatitis A: a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects the liver, causing inflammation, fatigue, nausea, and jaundice, and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or close contact with an infected individual.

Hepatitis B: a viral infection that targets the liver, leading to inflammation and potentially severe complications, and is transmitted through contact with infected blood, sexual fluids, or from mother to child during childbirth.

Hepatitis C: a viral infection causing liver inflammation, often resulting in chronic liver disease, and is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated blood, such as through shared needles, blood transfusions, or childbirth.

Hernia: A condition in which an organ or tissue bulges through a weak spot in the surrounding muscle or tissue.

Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus. Hepatitis: An inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus, alcohol, or other factors.

Hernia: A protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.

Herpes: a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), typically manifesting as oral or genital sores, and transmitted through close physical contact or contact with infected bodily fluids.

Hiatal hernia: A condition in which part of the stomach pushes up through the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen.

High cholesterol: also known as hyperlipidemia, is a condition where an individual has elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood, which can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

HIV/AIDS: a viral infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that attacks the immune system, leading to a progressive decline in immune function and eventually resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe stage characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers.

Hives: also known as urticaria, are a skin reaction characterized by red, itchy, raised welts, often triggered by an allergen, infection, or other factors affecting the immune system.

Holistic health: refers to an approach to well-being that considers the whole person, including their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects, and emphasizes the integration of various complementary and alternative therapies alongside conventional medicine to achieve optimal health and wellness.

Hodgkin's lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

Homeostasis: the body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite external fluctuations, through a series of self-regulating mechanisms that work to balance various physiological processes such as temperature, fluid balance, pH levels, and hormone levels within narrow ranges required for optimal functioning.

Human papillomavirus: a group of over 100 related viruses that can cause warts on various parts of the body and is linked to certain cancers, transmitted primarily through skin-to-skin or sexual contact.

Huntington's disease: a progressive, inherited neurological disorder characterized by the breakdown of brain cells, leading to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a mutation in the HTT gene.

Hypertension: High blood pressure.

Hypnosis: A state of deep relaxation in which a person is more open to suggestion.

Hyperthyroidism: a condition characterized by the overproduction of thyroid hormones, resulting in an increased metabolic rate, unintentional weight loss, rapid heartbeat, and nervousness, often caused by Graves' disease or thyroid nodules.

Hypothermia: a medical emergency that occurs when the body loses heat faster than it can produce it, causing a dangerously low body temperature. It can lead to multiple organ failure and even death if not treated promptly.

Hypothyroidism: a condition in which the thyroid gland produces insufficient thyroid hormones, leading to fatigue, weight gain, and sensitivity to cold, often resulting from Hashimoto's disease or thyroid gland damage.


Icterus: another term for jaundice.

Ileum: the lower part of the small intestine.

Immune system: The body's defense against infections and diseases, including bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.

Immunization: the process of making a person immune to a particular disease.

Immunoglobulin: a protein produced by the immune system that helps fight infection.

Impetigo: a contagious skin infection that causes blisters and crusts on the skin.

Incontinence: the inability to control urination or defecation.

Infarction: tissue death caused by a lack of blood flow.

Infection: the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in the body.

Infiltrate: to pass through a tissue or organ and accumulate within it.

Inflammation: a response of the immune system to injury or infection.

Inflammatory: causing inflammation.

Inflammatory bowel disease: a group of conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract.

Influenza: A viral infection that causes fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches.

Infusion: the introduction of fluid into a vein or tissue.

Inguinal: relating to the groin area.

Inhibitor: a substance that blocks or slows down a chemical reaction.

Inotropic: affecting the force of muscular contractions, especially in the heart.

In situ: a term used to describe cancer that has not spread beyond its original location.

Insomnia: a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep.

Interstitial: relating to the space between tissues or organs.

Interstitial cystitis: a chronic condition that causes bladder pain and discomfort.

Internal medicine: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in adults.

Intensive care unit (ICU): The part of a hospital that provides specialized medical care to critically ill patients.

Intestinal: relating to the intestines.

Intestinal obstruction: a blockage of the intestines.

Intubation: the insertion of a tube into the trachea to help with breathing.

Intracardiac: within the heart.

Intracranial: within the skull.

Intracranial pressure: the pressure inside the skull.

Intraoperative: occurring during a surgical operation.

Intrauterine: within the uterus.

Intravenous: within or through a vein.

Intravenous pyelogram: a medical imaging test used to evaluate the urinary system.

Intraperitoneal: within the peritoneal cavity, the space that surrounds the abdominal organs.

Intraperitoneal chemotherapy: chemotherapy that is delivered directly into the peritoneal cavity.

Invasive: relating to a medical procedure that involves entering the body.

Inversion: a movement of the foot that turns the sole inward.

Inversion sprain: a type of ankle sprain that involves turning the foot inward.

Iodine: a mineral essential for the production of thyroid hormones.

Iron deficiency anemiaa condition characterized by a lack of healthy red blood cells due to insufficient iron levels, which impairs the blood's ability to transport oxygen throughout the body.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition that affects the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Ischemia: a lack of blood flow to a part of the body.



Jaundice: a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow, often caused by liver disease or dysfunction.

Jaw: the bone that forms the framework of the mouth and holds the teeth.

Jaw claudication: pain in the jaw when chewing, often caused by temporal arteritis.

J curve: a graph that shows the relationship between a variable and an outcome.

Jitteriness: a feeling of nervousness or anxiety.

Jitters: a feeling of nervousness or anxiety.

Jock itch: a fungal infection that causes itching and redness in the groin area, often affecting athletes or people who sweat heavily.

Jock itch treatment: see jock itch.

Joint: the area where two bones meet, allowing movement in the body.

Joint aspiration: a medical procedure in which fluid is removed from a joint for analysis.

Joint capsule: a fibrous sac that encloses a joint.

Joint contracture: a condition in which a joint becomes permanently fixed in a certain position.

Joint crepitus: a cracking or popping sound in a joint.

Joint disease: any disease that affects the joints, such as arthritis.

Joint effusion: an abnormal buildup of fluid in a joint.

Joint fusion: surgery to permanently fuse a joint together.

Joint inflammation:  inflammation of the joints, often caused by arthritis.

Joint injection: a medical procedure in which medication is injected into a joint.

Joint locking: a condition in which a joint becomes stuck in a certain position.

Joint mobility: the range of motion of a joint.

Joint pain: pain in the joints, often caused by arthritis or injury.

Joint range of motion: the range of motion of a joint.

Joint replacement: A surgical procedure in which a damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint, often used to treat severe arthritis.

Joint replacement surgery:  see joint replacement.

Joint stiffness: a sensation of stiffness or resistance in a joint, often caused by arthritis.

Joint swelling: swelling around a joint, often caused by injury or arthritis.

Joint trauma: injury to a joint.

Joubert syndrome: a rare genetic disorder characterized by a small brainstem and other neurological abnormalities.

Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum: a small pouch that protrudes from the wall of the duodenum.

Juxtaposition: the placement of two things side by side for comparison.

Juxtapositional gaze: a medical sign that indicates brainstem dysfunction.

Juxtamedullary nephron: a type of kidney nephron located near the renal medulla.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus:  a structure in the kidneys that helps regulate blood pressure.

Juxtaglomerular cell: a type of kidney cell that produces renin.

J wave: a small wave on an electrocardiogram that can indicate an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.

Juvenile angiofibroma: a benign tumor that grows in the nasal cavity.

Juvenile diabetes: A type of diabetes that usually develops in childhood or adolescence. See also Diabetes, Type 1.

Juvenile hormone: a hormone that regulates insect development.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis:  a type of arthritis that occurs in children.

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy:  a type of epilepsy that begins in adolescence.


Kaposi's sarcoma: A type of cancer that causes tumors to develop in the skin, mucous membranes, and other tissues.

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a rare type of vascular tumor.

Karyogamy: the fusion of two nuclei during sexual reproduction.

Karyogamy tube: a specialized structure that allows the fusion of nuclei during sexual reproduction.

Karyokinesis: the process of nuclear division during cell division.

Karyokinetically: relating to karyokinesis.

Karyolymph: the clear liquid that fills the nucleus of a cell.

Karyolysis: the breakdown of the nucleus of a cell.

Karyometabolic: relating to the metabolism of the nucleus of a cell.

Karyomorphism: abnormal changes in the structure of chromosomes.

Karyomitosis: the division of a nucleus during cell division.

Karyopherin: a protein that helps transport molecules in and out of the nucleus of a cell.

Karyophilic: attracted to the nucleus of a cell.

Karyophagocytosis: the process of engulfing and breaking down the nucleus of a cell.

Karyosome: a dense body of material found in the nucleus of some cells.

Karyotheca: the membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.

Karyotype: a visual representation of a person's chromosomes.

Karyotype analysis: a laboratory test used to examine a person's chromosomes.

Karyotyping: the process of creating a karyotype.

Kava: a plant that is sometimes used as a natural remedy for anxiety and insomnia.

Kegel exercises: exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.

Keratin: a protein that makes up hair, nails, and skin

Keratitis: inflammation of the cornea of the eye.

Keratoacanthoma: a type of skin tumor that is usually benign.

Keratoconjunctivitis:  inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye.

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca: a condition commonly known as dry eye syndrome.

Keratoconus: a progressive eye disease that causes the cornea to thin and bulge.

Keratolytic: a substance that softens and loosens the outer layer of the skin

Keratosis: a buildup of keratin on the skin.

Ketogenic diet: a diet that is high in fat and low in carbohydrates.

Ketoacidosis: a life-threatening condition caused by high levels of ketones in the blood.

Ketoconazole: a medication used to treat fungal infections.

Ketones: chemicals produced when the body burns fat for energy.

Ketonuria: the presence of ketones in the urine.

Ketosis: A metabolic state in which the body burns fat for fuel instead of glucose, often achieved through a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet.

Ketosis: a metabolic state in which the body burns fat for energy.

Kidney: an organ that filters waste products from the blood.

Kidney cancer: cancer that originates in the kidneys.

Kidney disease: A condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot function properly, often caused by diabetes or high blood pressure.

Kidney: One of a pair of organs that filter waste products from the blood and produce urine.

Kidney stones: Hard deposits that form in the kidneys.

Kinase: an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups.

Kinesiologist: a specialist in the study of human movement.

Kinesiology: the study of human movement.

Kinesio tape: a type of athletic tape that is used to treat injuries and provide support.

Kinesthesia: the perception of movement and position of the body.

Kinesiophobia: fear of movement or physical activity.

Klebsiella: a type of bacteria that can cause infections.

Klinefelter syndrome: a genetic condition characterized by an extra X chromosome in males.

Knee: the joint between the thigh and lower leg.

Knee replacement: A surgical procedure in which a damaged knee joint is replaced with an artificial joint, often used to treat severe arthritis or injury.

Knee replacement: A surgical procedure in which a damaged knee joint is replaced with an artificial joint.

Kuru: a rare and fatal brain disease caused by prions.

Kyphosis: abnormal curvature of the spine

Kyphosis: A spinal deformity characterized by an abnormal curvature of the upper back, often called "hunchback."


Laceration: A cut or tear in the skin.

Laboratory: A facility where medical tests and experiments are performed to diagnose or treat diseases.

Lactate dehydrogenase: an enzyme found in many tissues of the body.

Lactation: the production of milk by the mammary glands.

Lactic acidosis: a condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the blood.

Lactose intolerance: a condition in which the body is unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and dairy products.

Laryngeal cancer: cancer that originates in the larynx.

Laryngeal mask airway: a device used to maintain an open airway during anesthesia.

Laryngeal nerve: a nerve that controls the muscles of the larynx.

Laryngeal spasm:  involuntary contractions of the muscles of the larynx.

Laryngectomy: surgical removal of the larynx.

Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box, causing hoarseness or loss of voice.

Laryngomalacia: a congenital condition in which the soft tissues of the larynx collapse during breathing.

Laryngopharyngeal reflux - a condition in which stomach acid flows back into the throat and larynx.

Laryngoscopy: a procedure used to examine the larynx.

Laryngotracheobronchitis:  inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi.

Laryngotracheitis:  inflammation of the larynx and trachea.

Larynx: the voice box in the throat.

Laxative: a medication used to treat constipation.

Legionnaires' disease a severe form of pneumonia caused by the Legionella bacteria, which typically spreads through contaminated water sources and can lead to severe respiratory symptoms, fever, and, in some cases, death.

Leptin: a hormone that regulates appetite and metabolism.

Lesion - an abnormal area of damaged tissue.

Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, causing abnormal white blood cells to grow and multiply.

Ligament: a band of tissue that connects bone to bone.

Lipid: a type of fat molecule.

Lipoma - a non-cancerous growth of fat cells.

Liposuction: A surgical procedure in which fat is removed from the body using a suction device.

Listeriosis: an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, often contracted through the consumption of contaminated food. It can cause severe illness, including severe septicemia and meningitis, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, pregnant women, and newborns.

Liver: An organ that produces bile, helps regulate blood sugar levels, and detoxifies the blood.

Liver disease: A condition that affects the liver, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

Liver cancera malignant growth of abnormal cells in the liver, often resulting from chronic liver diseases or exposure to harmful substances, which disrupts the organ's normal function and can spread to other parts of the body.

Lumen: the inside space of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or intestine.

Lumbar: relating to the lower back.

Lumbago: lower back pain.

Laminectomy: surgical removal of part of the vertebral bone to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.

Lou Gehrig's diseasealso known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, loss of motor function, and eventually paralysis.

Lumbosacral: relating to the lower back and sacrum.

Lumbosacral radiculopathy:  a condition caused by compression or irritation of nerve roots in the lower back.

Lumpectomy: surgical removal of a breast lump.

Lung cancer: cancer that originates in the lungs.

Lungs: The organs responsible for breathing, located in the chest and surrounded by the ribcage.

Lupus: an autoimmune disease that can affect various parts of the body.

Lymph: a clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system.

Lymph node: a small, bean-shaped structure that filters lymphatic fluid.

Lymphadenopathy: swelling of the lymph nodes.

Lymphangiectomy: surgical removal of a lymphatic vessel.

Lymphangiography: a diagnostic test used to evaluate the lymphatic system.

Lymphangioma: a benign tumor of lymphatic vessels.

Lymphatic filariasis: a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquitoes.

Lymphatic system: the network of vessels and tissues that help rid the body of waste and toxins.

Lymphatic vessels: vessels that transport lymphatic fluid.

Lymphedema: swelling caused by a buildup of lymphatic fluid.

Lymphocyte: a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection.

Lymphocyte proliferation assay: a laboratory test used to measure the activity of lymphocytes.

Lymphogranuloma venereum: a sexually transmitted infection caused by certain strains of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Lymphoid tissue: tissue in the body that produces and stores lymphocytes.

Lymphoma: a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

Lyme disease: an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks. It typically presents with flu-like symptoms and a characteristic skin rash known as erythema migrans, and if left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Lytic lesion: an area of bone damage caused by a disease or infection.


Macula: The part of the retina responsible for central vision, color perception, and fine detail.

Macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina, causing loss of vision.

Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes.

Malignant: Refers to cancerous cells or tumors that can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs.

Mammogram: An X-ray of the breast used to screen for breast cancer.

Mammography: A diagnostic imaging technique that uses X-rays to produce images of the breast, often used for breast cancer screening.

Mastectomy: Surgical removal of one or both breasts, often used as a treatment for breast cancer.

Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rash, and other symptoms.

Medical assistant: A healthcare professional who assists doctors and nurses in patient care.

Medicare: A government-funded health insurance program for elderly and disabled individuals.

Melanoma: A type of skin cancer that develops in the pigment-producing cells of the skin.

Meniere's Disease: Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and other symptoms.

Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, often caused by bacterial or viral infection.

Menopause: The natural cessation of menstruation that occurs in women around the age of 50.

Mental illness: A condition that affects a person's thinking, mood, or behavior.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma: a rare, aggressive type of skin cancer that begins in the Merkel cells at the base of the epidermis. It often appears as a fast-growing, painless nodule on sun-exposed skin and is associated with a high risk of recurrence and spread (metastasis), especially in the elderly, immunocompromised individuals, or those with a history of extensive sun exposure.

Metabolism: The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy.

Migraine headache: A type of headache characterized by throbbing pain, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Mitosis: The process of cell division that results in the formation of two identical daughter cells.

Mononucleosis: A viral infection that causes fever, fatigue, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.

MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a medical test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to produce images of the body's internal structures.

Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness.

Multiple sclerosis: A chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system, causing symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

Myasthenia gravisMyasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness and fatigue.

Myelofibrosis a rare and chronic blood cancer that affects the bone marrow, causing the abnormal production of blood cells and the development of fibrous tissue, which can lead to anemia, fatigue, spleen enlargement, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.

Myocardial infarction: A heart attack that occurs when the blood supply to the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle.

Myofascial release: a therapeutic technique that aims to alleviate muscle tension and pain by applying gentle pressure and stretching to the fascia, the connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles. It is believed to help release restrictions and adhesions within the fascia, promoting improved muscle mobility and reducing discomfort.

Myopia: Nearsightedness, a condition in which a person can see objects that are close but not objects that are far away.


Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden bouts of sleep.

Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden bouts of sleep.

Naturopathy: a form of alternative medicine that focuses on using natural remedies and therapies to support the body's inherent ability to heal itself, emphasizing the principles of prevention, individualized treatment, and addressing the underlying causes of disease.

Nausea: A feeling of sickness or discomfort in the stomach that often precedes vomiting.

Neonatology: The medical specialty that focuses on the care of newborn infants.

Nephritisinflammation of the kidneys, which can cause kidney dysfunction and damage.

Nephrologist: A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disorders.

Nephrology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disorders.

Nerve: A bundle of fibers that transmit signals between the brain and other parts of the body.

Neuralgia: A type of pain caused by irritation or damage to a nerve.

Neurology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system.

Neuron: A specialized cell that transmits electrical and chemical signals in the nervous system.

Neurotransmitter: A chemical messenger that transmits signals between neurons or from neurons to other cells.

Nicotine: A highly addictive stimulant found in tobacco products, such as cigarettes and chewing tobacco.

Nitrogen narcosis: A condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air at high pressure, causing symptoms similar to drunkenness.

Nodule: A small, rounded growth or lump, often found on the skin or in the lungs.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomaa type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, characterized by the abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.

Non-small cell lung cancera type of lung cancer that typically grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer, and includes several subtypes such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.

Norovirus: a highly contagious virus that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often referred to as stomach flu or gastroenteritis. Its symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain, and while it's usually not life-threatening, it can lead to severe dehydration, particularly in young children, the elderly, and people with other illnesses.

Nosebleed: also known as epistaxis, is a condition characterized by bleeding from the blood vessels in the lining of the nose, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as dry air, injury, high blood pressure, or clotting disorders.

Nurse practitioner: A registered nurse with advanced training and education who can diagnose and treat common medical conditions.

Nutrition: The study of how food and nutrients affect the body, including growth, development, and health.


Obesity: A medical condition characterized by an excess of body fat, often leading to health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.

Obsessive-compulsive disordera mental health condition characterized by persistent, intrusive, and distressing thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) aimed at reducing anxiety and preventing harm.

Obstetrics: The medical specialty that focuses on the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

Occupational therapy: A type of therapy that focuses on helping people regain or maintain their ability to perform daily activities, such as dressing and eating, after an injury or illness.

Odontalgia: refers to tooth pain or toothache.

Oncology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Ophthalmology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases and disorders.

Optometrist: A healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of vision problems.

Oral cancera type of cancer that affects the tissues in the mouth or throat, and is often linked to tobacco and alcohol use, as well as the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Oral health: The health of the teeth, gums, and mouth, often maintained through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups.

Organ: A group of tissues that perform a specific function in the body, such as the heart, liver, or lungs.

Organ transplanta surgical procedure in which a healthy organ from a donor is transplanted into a recipient who has a damaged or failing organ, with the goal of restoring normal function and improving quality of life.

Orthodontics: The dental specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of misaligned teeth and jaws.

Orthodontist: A dental specialist who corrects irregularities in the teeth and jaws.

Orthopedics: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, muscles, and tendons.

Osteoarthritis: A common form of arthritis characterized by the degeneration of cartilage in the joints, often causing pain and stiffness.

Osteosarcomaa rare type of bone cancer that usually affects children and young adults, and develops in the cells that form bones, often in the arms or legs.

Osteoporosis: A medical condition characterized by a loss of bone mass and density, often leading to an increased risk of fractures.

Otorhinolaryngology:  the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. Somes also referred to as ears, nose and throat (ENT) specialists.

Otology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of ear disorders.

Ovarian cancer: A type of cancer that develops in the ovaries, often causing abdominal pain, bloating, and other symptoms.

Ovarian cystsfluid-filled sacs that develop on or inside the ovaries, which can be asymptomatic or cause pain, discomfort, or other complications.

Overactive bladder: a condition characterized by a frequent and urgent need to urinate, often accompanied by involuntary leakage of urine, and can be caused by a variety of factors such as age, neurological disorders, or bladder dysfunction.


Pain: An unpleasant sensation of discomfort or suffering in the body or mind that is caused by injury or disease.

Palliative carespecialized medical care that aims to improve the quality of life and relieve suffering for patients with serious illnesses, focusing on symptom management, emotional and spiritual support, and enhancing the patient's overall well-being.

Palpitations: A fluttering or racing heartbeat.

Pancreatic cancera type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach that produces digestive enzymes and hormones like insulin, and is often detected at an advanced stage, making it difficult to treat.

Panic disordera type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, which are sudden episodes of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by physical symptoms like heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and sweating.

Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder that causes tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.

Pathology: The medical specialty that focuses on the study of disease and its causes.

Pediatrician: A medical doctor who specializes in the care of infants, children, and adolescents.

Pelvic inflammatory diseasea common condition of the female reproductive organs, typically caused by sexually transmitted infections, which can cause inflammation, pain, and damage to the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes, and lead to infertility if left untreated.

Peptic ulcer: A sore or erosion in the lining of the stomach or small intestine, often caused by infection or medication.

Pericarditis: An inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart.

Periodontal gum diseasealso known as periodontitis, is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth, leading to inflammation, gum recession, tooth loss, and potentially affecting overall health.

Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the arteries that carry blood to the arms and legs become narrowed or blocked.

Peritoneal dialysisa type of dialysis that involves using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood in people with kidney failure, by introducing a special solution into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter.

Personality disordera type of mental health condition characterized by enduring patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings that deviate from cultural norms and cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Peyronie's Disease: a condition characterized by the development of fibrous scar tissue inside the penis, causing pain, curvature, and difficulty with sexual intercourse.

Pharmacy: The practice of preparing and dispensing medications.

Pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx, the part of the throat that lies between the tonsils and the larynx, typically caused by a viral or bacterial infection, and characterized by symptoms such as sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing.

Phlebotomist: A healthcare professional who collects blood samples for laboratory testing.

Physical therapy: A healthcare profession that uses exercise, massage, and other techniques to improve movement and reduce pain.

Pink Eyealso known as conjunctivitis, is a condition characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye, typically caused by a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, or irritants such as smoke, dust or chemicals, and can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and discharge from the eye.

Plantar fasciitisa common condition that causes pain in the heel and bottom of the foot, resulting from inflammation and micro-tearing of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that supports the arch of the foot.

PMS: PMS, or premenstrual syndrome, is a group of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that many women experience in the days leading up to their menstrual period, including bloating, breast tenderness, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, and headaches.

Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs.

Point-of-care test: a medical diagnostic test that can be performed near the patient, typically at the bedside or in a clinical setting, providing rapid results without the need for samples to be sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Poliomyelitis: A viral infection that can cause paralysis.

Polycythemia veraa rare blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the bone marrow, which can lead to thickening of the blood, impaired circulation, and an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age, characterized by the presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries, irregular menstrual periods, elevated levels of male hormones (androgens), and insulin resistance, and may cause a range of symptoms such as acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, and infertility.

Post-herpetic neuralgia: a type of chronic pain that can occur after an outbreak of shingles (herpes zoster), a viral infection that causes a painful rash, and is caused by damage to the nerves that were affected by the shingles rash.

Prostate cancer: Cancer that starts in the prostate gland, a gland in the male reproductive system.

Plaque Psoriasis: the most common type of psoriasis, characterized by thick, red, scaly patches of skin that often develop on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back, and may cause itching, pain, and inflammation.

Psoriasisa chronic autoimmune disease that causes the skin to become red, scaly, and itchy, and can affect any part of the body, caused by an overactive immune system that triggers skin cells to grow too quickly.

Pulmonary embolism: a serious medical condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep vein, typically in the legs, and travels to the lungs, causing blockage of the pulmonary arteries and potentially leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and even death.


Q fever: An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii that can cause flu-like symptoms, pneumonia, and hepatitis.

Qazi–Markouizos syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by non-progressive muscle weakness, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and skin abnormalities.

Quadriceps sparing myopathy: A type of muscular disorder in which the quadriceps, the large muscle group in front of the thigh, is unusually unaffected while other muscles progressively weaken and waste away.

Quadriceps tendon rupture: An injury that occurs when the tendon that attaches the quadriceps muscle at the front of the thigh to the kneecap tears, often causing significant pain and loss of knee function.

Quinsy: A painful abscess that forms in the tonsils as a complication of tonsillitis.

Quadrantanopia: A visual field defect that affects one-quarter of the visual field due to damage to the optic nerve or brain.

Quadriparesis: A condition characterized by weakness in all four limbs, both arms and both legs, often due to damage to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves.

Quadriplegia: Paralysis of all four limbs and the torso due to injury or disease of the spinal cord.

Quality control: The process of ensuring that medical products and services meet the highest standards of safety and efficacy.

Quarantine: The isolation of individuals or groups who have been exposed to or infected with a contagious disease, to prevent the spread of the disease.

Quebec platelet disorder: A rare, inherited bleeding disorder characterized by delayed onset bleeding and the presence of abnormally high levels of the protein plasminogen in platelets, leading to degradation of clotting factors.

Quinine: A medication used to treat malaria and other conditions caused by protozoa, which works by interfering with the parasites' ability to metabolize nutrients.

QRS complex: The part of an electrocardiogram (ECG) that represents the depolarization of the ventricles of the heart.

Quickening: The first movements felt by a pregnant woman from the fetus, usually occurring around 16-20 weeks of pregnancy.

Quinsywort: A plant in the mint family that has traditionally been used to treat throat infections, including quinsy.

Quitting smoking: the process of discontinuing the habit of inhaling tobacco smoke from burned substances, primarily in the form of cigarettes or cigars, often due to health concerns or personal choice.


Radiation therapy: A type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Radiography: The use of X-rays to produce images of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis.

Radiology: The medical specialty that uses imaging techniques, such as X-rays and CT scans, to diagnose and treat diseases.

Rales: Abnormal crackling or rattling sounds heard during breathing.

Rabiesa viral infection that affects the central nervous system of mammals, typically transmitted to humans through the bite or scratch of an infected animal, and can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle weakness, seizures, and in some cases, coma and death if not treated promptly.

Rare diseases: Diseases that affect a small percentage of the population, often with diverse symptoms and difficult diagnosis, also known as orphan diseases.

Rash: A temporary eruption or discoloration of the skin, often accompanied by itching or burning.

Raynaud's diseaseA condition causing some areas of your body like fingers and toes to feel numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or stress.

Receptor: A protein or molecule on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter.

Reconstructive surgery: A type of surgery performed to restore the appearance and function of body parts affected by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease.

Reflex: An involuntary response to a stimulus, such as a knee-jerk reflex.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes through a medium, such as the cornea or lens of the eye.

Regurgitation: The backward flow of material from one part of the digestive system to another.

Rehabilitation: The process of restoring function and mobility after injury or illness.

Renal: Pertaining to the kidneys.

Renal failure: The inability of the kidneys to properly filter waste products from the blood, often caused by kidney disease or injury.

Repetitive strain injury: a general term used to describe the pain felt in muscles, nerves, and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse, often associated with occupational or recreational activities.

Resection: A surgical procedure where all or part of a tissue or organ is removed.

Respiration: The act of breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide.

Respiratory infectionAn infection that affects the respiratory tract, which can be in the upper part (like the common cold) or lower part (like pneumonia).

Respiratory system: The organs and structures involved in breathing, including the lungs, trachea, and bronchial tubes.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): a common, highly contagious virus that causes infections of the respiratory tract, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Its symptoms may range from mild cold-like symptoms to severe lung infections such as bronchiolitis or pneumonia.

Restless leg syndromeA neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations, often affecting the legs.

Retina: The layer of cells at the back of the eye that receives and processes visual information.

Rheumatism: A general term for any condition that causes pain and stiffness in the muscles and joints.

Rheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, and sometimes other organs, resulting in pain, swelling, and potential loss of function.

Rheumatology: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders.

Rhinitis: Inflammation of the lining of the nose, often caused by allergies or infection.

Rhinoplasty: A surgical procedure to reshape the nose.

RingwormA common fungal infection of the skin, characterized by a red circular rash with clear skin in the middle, not caused by a worm despite its name.

Risk factor: A condition or behavior that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or condition.

Risk score: A numerical representation, often used in health care, to quantify an individual's risk or likelihood of developing a certain disease or condition in the future.

Rhinorrhea: Excessive discharge of mucus from the nose, commonly known as a runny nose.

Rickets: A childhood disease characterized by softening and weakening of the bones.

Rosacea: A skin condition that causes redness and visible blood vessels on the face, often accompanied by acne-like pimples and bumps.


Salmonellosis: an infection caused by Salmonella bacteria, typically contracted through the consumption of contaminated food or water. It commonly results in symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, and while most individuals recover without treatment, it can be severe or even life-threatening in the elderly, infants, or those with compromised immune systems.

ScabiesA contagious skin infestation caused by a mite known as the Sarcoptes scabiei, resulting in severe itching and a pimple-like rash.

Scarlet feverAn infectious disease causing a distinctive pink-red rash, high temperature, and sore throat, typically affecting children and caused by the same bacteria responsible for strep throat.

Schizophrenia: A severe mental disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking and behavior.

SclerodermaA group of rare diseases that cause the skin and connective tissues to tighten and harden.

Scoliosis: A sideways curvature of the spine, often detected in childhood or adolescence.

Seasonal affective disorderA type of depression that's related to changes in seasons, typically starting in the fall and continuing into the winter months.

Seizure: A sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain, causing changes in behavior, movement, and consciousness.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI): An infection that is spread through sexual contact, including gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV.

Shigellosisalso known as bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by the Shigella bacteria that leads to symptoms such as severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

ShinglesA painful viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus, characterized by a rash of blisters usually on one side of the body or face.

Shoulder pain: Discomfort or pain originating from or felt in the shoulder, which can stem from various causes such as injury, inflammation, or certain diseases.

SIBOA medical condition where an abnormally high number of bacteria are present in the small intestine, causing bloating, diarrhea, and other digestive symptoms.

Sickle cell anemiaA genetic disorder causing red blood cells to become misshapen and break down more rapidly, leading to anemia, pain, and other problems.

Sinus infection: An inflammation or swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses often caused by a viral or bacterial infection, leading to symptoms like nasal congestion, pain, and sometimes fever.

SinusitisAnother term for sinus infection, referring to inflammation or swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses.

Skeletal system: The bones and connective tissues that provide support and structure to the body.

Skin cancer: A type of cancer that develops in the skin, often caused by exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds.

Skincare: The practice of maintaining skin health and appearance, often through cleansing, moisturizing, and protecting from sun damage.

Skin wrinkles: please see "Wrinkles of the Skin"

Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder characterized by interrupted breathing during sleep, often causing snoring and daytime sleepiness.

Sleep disorders: A group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis, including insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome.

Sleep hygiene: The practices and habits necessary to have good nighttime sleep quality and full daytime alertness, such as maintaining a regular sleep schedule and creating a sleep-friendly environment.

Small cell lung cancerA type of lung cancer characterized by small cells that grow and spread quickly, often associated with smoking.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowthA condition characterized by excessive bacteria in the small intestine, leading to symptoms like gas, bloating, diarrhea, and nutritional deficiencies.

SmallpoxA highly contagious and deadly disease, caused by the variola virus, that has been eradicated worldwide by a successful vaccination program.

Smoking cessation: The process of quitting smoking and overcoming nicotine addiction.

Sore throatA condition characterized by pain, itchiness, or irritation of the throat, often worsened by swallowing, and commonly caused by viral or bacterial infections.

Speech therapist: A healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of speech and language disorders.

Spinal cord: The bundle of nerves that runs from the brain down the back, transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body.

Spinal cord injury: Damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal, often resulting in permanent changes in strength, sensation, and other body functions below the site of the injury.

Spinal muscular atrophy: A genetic disorder characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy) in muscles used for movement, caused by a loss of motor neurons.

Splinting: The use of a rigid device to immobilize a body part or keep it in a specific position to aid in healing or relieve pain.

Sports medicine: The medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sports-related injuries and conditions.

Sprain: An injury to a ligament caused by stretching or tearing, often caused by trauma or overuse.

Squamous cell carcinoma: A common form of skin cancer that develops in the squamous cells that make up the middle and outer layers of the skin.

STD: Sexually transmitted disease, a term used to describe infections that are spread through sexual contact.

Stellate ganglion: a cluster of nerve cells located in the neck region that plays a role in regulating certain functions of the head, neck, and upper extremities.

Stenting: A medical procedure where a small tube called a stent is placed in an artery or duct to keep it open and restore the flow of bodily fluids.

Stiff-person syndromeA rare neurological disorder characterized by stiffness, muscle spasms, functional disability, and functional impairment, often linked to autoimmune conditions.

Stomach cancerA type of cancer that begins in the stomach, often developing slowly over many years and characterized by symptoms such as indigestion and stomach discomfort.

Stomach fluCommon term for gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the lining of the intestines caused by a virus, bacteria or parasites, characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea. 

Strep throatA bacterial infection in the throat and tonsils caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus), causing throat pain and swelling

Stress: A physical, mental, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension, which can be a reaction to a challenge or adverse situation.

Stroke: A medical emergency caused by the interruption of blood flow to the brain, often causing permanent brain damage or death.

Substance abuse: The misuse of drugs or alcohol, often leading to addiction and negative health consequences.

Substance use disorderA medical condition characterized by uncontrolled use of a substance despite harmful consequences, leading to health issues or disability.

SunburnA type of skin damage from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays, causing redness, pain, and, in severe cases, blistering.

Supplements: Products taken orally that contain a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet, such as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes.

Surgery: The branch of medicine that involves performing operations to treat or correct medical conditions.

Swine flu: A type of influenza virus that originally infected pigs but can also infect humans, causing symptoms similar to the regular flu, such as cough, fever, and sore throat.

Symptom: A sign or indication of a disease or condition, such as pain, fever, or rash.

Syndromes: A group of symptoms that occur together and are characteristic of a particular disease or condition.

Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if left untreated.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)An autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body, causing inflammation and damage.


Tachycardia: A rapid heart rate, usually defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.

Tapeworm infectionA parasitic disease caused by the ingestion of tapeworm eggs or larvae, often through undercooked or contaminated food, resulting in digestive issues and other symptoms.

Teething: The process by which an infant's teeth sequentially appear by breaking through the gums, often causing discomfort or fussiness.

Temporomandibular joint disordera condition characterized by pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and surrounding muscles.

Tendonitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by overuse or injury.

Tendon rupture: A tear or complete break of a tendon, which can cause severe pain, swelling, and an inability to move the associated joint.

Testicular cancerA type of cancer that originates in the testicles, the male reproductive glands responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone.

Tetanus: A bacterial infection that causes muscle stiffness and lockjaw.

ThalassemiaA group of inherited blood disorders characterized by reduced or absent levels of hemoglobin, leading to a lack of oxygen in various parts of the body.

Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, often causing blockage and damage to tissues and organs.

ThrushA fungal (Candida) infection causing white patches in the mouth and throat, often seen in infants and people with weakened immune systems.

Thyroid cancer: Cancer that starts in the thyroid gland, a gland in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism.

Thyroid diseaseAny dysfunction of the thyroid gland, which can lead to conditions such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, or thyroid cancer.

Thyroid gland: An endocrine gland located in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism and other bodily functions.

Tick-borne encephalitisA viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system, transmitted by the bite of infected ticks, characterized by symptoms like fever, headache, and vomiting, and in severe cases, can cause meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis.

Tinnitus: The perception of ringing, buzzing or other sounds in the ears, often caused by damage to the ear or the auditory nerve.

TMJ Disorders (TM Dysfunction)Disorders affecting the joint that connects the jaw to the skull, causing pain in the jaw joint and in the muscles that control jaw movement.

Toenail problems:  Conditions affecting the toenails, such as fungal infections, ingrown toenails, or injuries.

Tongue problems: Conditions affecting the tongue, including pain, discoloration, or changes in texture or movement.

Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, often caused by infection or allergies.

Tooth decay (caries)The damage of tooth structure caused by acids made by bacteria in dental plaque, leading to cavities or holes in the teeth.

Tourette syndromeA neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics and vocalizations, often accompanied by compulsive utterances of obscenities or socially inappropriate remarks.

ToxoplasmosisA parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, often mild but can cause serious problems in people with weak immune systems or in newborns whose mothers are infected.

Transgender Health: The interdisciplinary field of medicine that covers the physical and mental health needs and care protocols specific to transgender individuals.

Transfusion: The transfer of blood or blood components from one person to another.

Transplant: The process of moving an organ or tissue from one person or animal to another, often to replace a damaged or diseased organ.

Trauma: A physical or emotional injury caused by an external force, such as an accident or violence.

Traumatic brain injury: a form of brain damage caused by a sudden, violent blow or jolt to the head, which disrupts the normal function of the brain. It can result in a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities, from temporary disorientation to long-term cognitive issues, physical impairments, and even death.

Tremor: A rhythmic shaking or quivering movement, often affecting the hands or other parts of the body.

TrichomoniasisA common sexually transmitted infection caused by a parasite, often with mild or no symptoms but can lead to discomfort and increased risk of other STIs.

Trigeminal neuralgiaA chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain, causing extreme, sporadic, sudden burning, or shock-like facial pain.

Triglyceride: A type of fat found in the blood, which can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Triple-Negative Breast CancerA type of breast cancer that is estrogen-receptor negative, progesterone-receptor negative, and HER2 negative, making it unresponsive to some of the most effective therapies.

Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

Tummy tuck: A cosmetic surgical procedure (also known as abdominoplasty) to improve the appearance of the abdomen by removing excess fat and skin and restoring weakened or separated muscles.

Tumor: An abnormal growth of cells or tissue that can be cancerous or noncancerous (malignant or benign).

Tympanic: Relating to the eardrum or middle ear.

Type 1 diabetesa chronic autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, resulting in insufficient insulin production and requiring lifelong insulin replacement therapy for proper blood sugar control.

Type 2 diabetes: A type of diabetes in which the body is unable to properly use insulin, resulting in high blood sugar.

Typhoid fever: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, diarrhea, and other symptoms.


Ulcer: A sore or erosion in the lining of an organ or tissue, often caused by infection or injury.

Ulcerative colitisA chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the innermost lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and frequent need to defecate.

Ultrasonography: A diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and structures.

Ultrasound: A medical test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the body's internal structures.

Umbilical: Relating to the navel or umbilicus.

Uremia: A condition in which the kidneys are unable to remove waste products from the blood, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, and confusion.

Ureter: A tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

Urethra: A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

Urinalysis: A laboratory test that examines the urine for signs of infection, disease, or other abnormalities.

Urinary: Relating to the organs or structures involved in the production, storage, and elimination of urine.

Urinary incontinence: The involuntary loss of urine, often caused by weakness of the muscles that control the bladder.

Urinary system: The organs and structures involved in the production and excretion of urine, including the kidneys, bladder, and urethra.

Urinary tract infection (UTI): An infection of the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra often caused by bacteria.

Urologist: A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the urinary tract and male reproductive system.

Urologic health: pertains to the health and proper functioning of the urinary system, which includes kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra, as well as the male reproductive organs.

Urticaria: A skin rash characterized by raised, itchy, and red or white bumps, also known as hives.

Uterus: The organ in the female reproductive system where the fertilized egg implants and develops into a fetus during pregnancy.

Uterine conditions: A range of disorders affecting the uterus (womb), such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and uterine prolapse, can impact menstruation, pregnancy, and overall reproductive health.

Uterine fibroidsNoncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years, causing symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure or pain, and complications during pregnancy.

Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause eye pain, redness, and vision problems.

UV radiation: A type of electromagnetic radiation that is present in sunlight and can cause skin damage, including sunburn and skin cancer.


Vaginal health: Refers to the overall health and well-being of the vagina, maintained by a balance of certain bacteria and pH levels, and can be influenced by various factors like sexual activity, contraception use, and menopause.

Vaginal infectionA condition characterized by the abnormal growth of bacteria or yeast in the vagina, leading to symptoms such as itching, burning, unusual discharge, and discomfort.

VaginitisInflammation of the vagina that can result in discharge, itching, and pain, often due to an infection or hormonal changes.

Varicella: a viral disease also referred to as chickenpox.

Vaccine: A substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies and provide protection against a specific disease.

Varicose veins: Swollen, twisted veins that are visible beneath the skin, often occurring in the legs and feet.

Varicocele: a varicose enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord producing a soft compressible tumor mass in the scrotum.

Vascular: of or relating to a tube or channel for carrying a body fluid (as blood of an animal or sap of a plant) or to a system of such channels or tubes.

Vasculitis: inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel. Also called angiitis.

Vasectomy: A surgical procedure in which the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, is cut and tied to prevent pregnancy.

Vasoconstriction: narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels especially as a result of vasomotor action.

Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood from the body's tissues back to the heart.

Ventilator: A machine that assists with breathing by delivering oxygen to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide from the body.

Ventricular arrhythmiaA heart condition characterized by an abnormal heartbeat originating from the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart), which can be life-threatening.

VertigoA sensation of feeling off balance or experiencing a sense of spinning, often caused by issues in the inner ear or brain.

Vibrio vulnificus (flesh-eating bacteria)Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium commonly found in warm salt water that can cause severe infections in humans, especially when consumed through contaminated seafood or when open wounds are exposed to infected waters. If not treated promptly, infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. 

Vision loss: Partial or complete loss of vision caused by various conditions, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, cataracts, or trauma.

Virology: The study of viruses and their effects on the body.

Virus: A microscopic organism that can cause infections and diseases.

Vitamin: Organic compounds required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body, typically obtained through diet as the body cannot produce most vitamins.

VitiligoA long-term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment due to the destruction of pigment-forming cells, resulting in irregular white patches that feel like normal skin.

Vulvodynia: chronic discomfort of the vulva of uncertain cause that is experienced as burning or shooting pain, stinging, or irritation.

Vulvovaginal: of or relating to the vulva and the vagina.

Vulvovaginitis: inflammation of the vulva and vagina.


Walking pneumonia: A mild form of pneumonia that does not require hospitalization and can be treated with antibiotics.

Wart: Small, rough growths on the skin that may be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Waterborne illness: An illness caused by consuming or coming into contact with contaminated water, such as cholera or giardiasis.

Weight loss: The reduction of total body mass due to a loss of fluid, body fat, or lean mass, often occurring as a result of exercise, healthy eating, or a medical condition.

Weight loss surgery: A surgical procedure, such as gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy, that helps individuals lose weight by altering the digestive system.

Weight management: The long-term approach to maintaining a healthy weight through a balance of healthy eating, regular physical activity, and positive lifestyle changes.

Wellness: The state of being in good physical and mental health, often achieved through a healthy lifestyle.

West Nile virus: A viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes, causing fever, headache, and other flu-like symptoms.

Whiplash: A neck injury caused by a sudden, forceful back-and-forth movement of the head, often occurring in car accidents.

White blood cells: Cells in the immune system that help to fight off infections and diseases.

White blood cell disorders: Conditions that affect the production, function, or lifespan of white blood cells, key components of the immune system, leading to symptoms like recurrent infections, fatigue, or abnormal bleeding.

Whooping cough: A highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, characterized by severe coughing fits and a "whooping" sound when breathing in.

Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder in which the body accumulates too much copper, leading to liver and neurological problems.

Wound: An injury to the skin or underlying tissues, often caused by trauma or surgery.

Women's wellness: The comprehensive approach to health focuses on the unique needs and concerns of women throughout their life, encompassing physical, mental, and social well-being.

Wrinkles of the skin: the medical term for skin wrinkling is "cutis laxa" or "dermatochalasis." Cutis laxa refers to a condition characterized by loose, sagging skin with reduced elasticity, leading to the formation of wrinkles. Dermatochalasis specifically refers to the excessive skin in the eyelid area, causing drooping and wrinkling of the upper or lower eyelids. Both terms are used to describe different aspects of skin wrinkling in a medical context.


Xanthoderma: Yellow discoloration of the skin, often caused by excessive accumulation of carotenoids or other pigments.

Xanthoma: A yellowish deposit of fat and cholesterol that can accumulate under the skin, often a sign of high cholesterol levels or other lipid disorders.

Xanthopsia: A visual disturbance in which objects appear yellow or green, often associated with certain medications or medical conditions.

Xanthosis: Abnormal yellow discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes, often caused by the accumulation of certain pigments or substances.

Xenophobia: Fear or hatred of foreigners or people from different cultures.

Xenotransplantation: The transplantation of organs or tissues from one species to another, often used in cases where human donors are scarce.

Xeroderma: A condition characterized by dry, rough, and scaly skin, often caused by environmental factors or genetic disorders.

Xerophthalmia: A condition affecting tear production in which the eyes become dry and inflamed, often caused by vitamin A deficiency.

Xerosis: Dryness of the skin or other body surfaces.

Xerostomia: Dryness of the mouth, often caused by reduced saliva production or certain medical conditions.

Xiphoid process: The small, cartilaginous extension at the lower end of the sternum.

X-linked recessive disorder: A genetic disorder that is passed down from parents to children on the X chromosome.

X-ray: A medical test that uses electromagnetic radiation to produce images of the body's internal structures, used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions.

X-ray: A medical test that uses electromagnetic radiation to produce images of the body's internal structures.

Xylitol: A sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener and sugar substitute.


Y chromosome: the sex chromosome found in males.

Yawning: a reflexive deep inhalation often associated with tiredness or boredom.

Yawning disordera rare condition characterized by excessive and uncontrollable yawning.

Yawning epilepsya rare form of epilepsy characterized by frequent yawning and brief periods of altered consciousness.

Yaws: a tropical disease that is caused by a bacterium and characterized by skin lesions.

Yearly physical examan annual medical checkup to assess overall health.

Yeast infection: An infection caused by a type of fungus that can affect the skin, vagina, and mouth.

Yellow bilea concept in ancient Greek medicine associated with anger and irritability.

Yellow bone marrowa type of bone marrow that stores fat and produces some white blood cells.

Yellow carda form used to report adverse reactions to medications or vaccines.

Yellow card schemea system for reporting adverse reactions to medications or vaccines in the UK.

Yellow fever: a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes and is characterized by fever, jaundice, and bleeding. A viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes, causes fever, jaundice, and other symptoms.

Yellow fever antigena substance that triggers an immune response to yellow fever.

Yellow fever certificatea document required for international travel to countries where yellow fever is present.

Yellow fever endemic zone an area where yellow fever is common

Yellow fever historythe history of yellow fever, including its origins, transmission, and impact on human populations.

Yellow fever mosquitothe species of mosquito that transmits yellow fever.

Yellow fever outbreaka sudden increase in the number of cases of yellow fever in a particular area.

Yellow fever surveillance the monitoring of yellow fever cases to track the spread of the disease.

Yellow fever vaccinea vaccine that helps prevent yellow fever.

Yellow fever virusthe virus that causes yellow fever.

Yellow jacket allergyan allergic reaction to the sting of a yellow jacket or other wasp species.

Yellow jacket stinga type of insect sting that can cause an allergic reaction

Yellow light therapya type of light therapy used to treat skin conditions such as psoriasis and acne

Yellow marrowsee yellow bone marrow

Yellow nail dystrophya condition characterized by thickened, yellow nails

Yellow nail syndrome: a rare condition in which the nails become thickened, yellowed, and curved, often accompanied by lymphedema and respiratory symptoms.

Yellow nail syndrome lymphedemaa type of lymphedema associated with yellow nail syndrome

Yellow perila historical term used to stoke fear of Asian immigrants in the West.

Yellow skina symptom of jaundice, which can be caused by liver disease or other conditions.

Yellow skin: A condition in which the skin takes on a yellowish hue, often caused by liver disease or dysfunction.

Yellow tonguea condition characterized by a yellow coating on the tongue

Yersinia enterocolitica - a bacterium that can cause food poisoning.

Yersinia pestis: The bacterium that causes plague.

Yin and Yang: concepts from traditional Chinese medicine that represent opposing forces in the body, believed to be in balance for optimal health.

Y-linked inheritance inheritance of a trait or disease through the Y chromosome

Yogaa mind-body practice that can improve physical and mental health.

Yoga: A mind-body practice that incorporates physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation to improve health and well-being.

Yohimbinea medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and low libido

Yolk saca structure in early development that provides nutrients to the developing embryo

Yolk sac carcinomaa type of cancer that typically occurs in the testicles or ovaries.

Yolk sac mesenchymal stem cella type of stem cell found in the yolk sac.

Yolk sac tumora type of germ cell tumor that occurs in the testicles or ovaries.

Young adulta person in their late teens or early twenties

Young adult cancer cancer that occurs in young adults

Young adult novela genre of fiction aimed at readers in their teens and early twenties

Younger onset dementia dementia that occurs in people under the age of 65

Young's syndromea condition characterized by chronic sinusitis and male infertility

Youth depression depression in young people, often due to social or academic pressures

Youth suicide: the act of taking one's own life by a person under the age of 25 years, often caused by mental health issues or social factors.

Yttriuma rare earth element used in various medical applications.

Yttrium-90a radioactive isotope used in cancer treatment.

Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetana medication used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Yttrium-90 microsphere therapya type of cancer treatment that uses radioactive particles to target tumors.


Zafirlukasta medication used to treat asthma.

Zaleplona medication used to treat insomnia.

Zanamivira medication used to treat influenza.

Zanamivir inhalation powdera medication used to treat influenza.

Z-axisthe vertical axis in a three-dimensional coordinate system.

Zebrafisha small tropical fish often used in medical research.

Zenker's diverticuluma pouch that forms in the esophagus.

Zeta potentiala measure of the electrical charge of particles in a fluid.

Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70an enzyme involved in immune system signaling.

Zidovudinea medication used to treat HIV/AIDS.

Zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavira medication used to treat HIV/AIDS.

Ziehl-Neelsen staina laboratory technique used to identify bacteria that cause tuberculosis.

Zika virus: A viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes, causing fever, rash, and other symptoms, also known to cause birth defects in pregnant women.

Zinca mineral essential for growth and development.

Zinc deficiencya condition that occurs when the body doesn't have enough zinc.

Zinc oxidea compound used in sunscreens and other products.

Zinc sulfatea compound used in dietary supplements and other products.

Zinc supplementa dietary supplement that contains zinc.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome a rare condition that causes excess stomach acid production.

Zolofta medication used to treat depression and anxiety.

Zolpidema medication used to treat insomnia.

Zonalrelating to a zone or region.

Zonal centrifugationa laboratory technique used to separate particles based on their density.

Zonular fibersfibers that hold the lens of the eye in place.

Zoonosis: An infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Zoonoticrelating to a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Zoonotic disease: a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Zoonotic infectionan infection caused by a zoonotic pathogen.

Zoonotic pathogena pathogen that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Zoonotic transmissionthe transmission of a disease from animals to humans.

Zooplanktonmicroscopic animals that float in water.

Zoster: commonly known as shingles, is a reactivation of the viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chickenpox.

Zoster immune globulina medication used to prevent or treat shingles.

Zoster vaccinea vaccine that helps prevent shingles.

Zwitteriona molecule with both positive and negative charges.

Zygomathe cheekbone.

Zygomaticrelating to the cheekbone.

Zygomatic archthe bony arch that forms the cheekbone.

Zygomatic bonethe bone that forms the cheekbone.

Zygomatic processa bony projection on the temporal bone that forms part of the cheekbone.

Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracturea type of facial fracture involving the cheekbone and upper jaw.

Zygomaticotemporal nerve: a nerve that supplies the skin of the temple and forehead.

Zygosporea dormant reproductive cell in some fungi and algae.

Zygotea fertilized egg.

Zygote intrafallopian transfera type of fertility treatment.

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) - a type of assisted reproductive technology.

Zygote pronucleus: the nucleus of a zygote.

Zygote: A cell formed by the union of a sperm and egg cell during fertilization.