What is HIV/AIDS?

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically CD4 cells (also called T cells), which help the body fight infections. If left untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged, making the body vulnerable to infections and other illnesses.


Who's at risk for HIV/AIDS?

Anyone can be at risk for HIV/AIDS, but certain populations may be at higher risk, including:

  • People who have unprotected sex with someone who has HIV
  • People who share needles or syringes with someone who has HIV
  • Babies born to mothers who have HIV
  • People who received blood transfusions or organ transplants before the implementation of screening measures for HIV


What causes HIV/AIDS?

HIV is spread through certain bodily fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common ways HIV is spread are through unprotected sexual contact with an infected person, sharing needles or syringes with an infected person, and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.


How does HIV/AIDS start?

HIV infection may not have any symptoms at first, but may progress to flu-like symptoms, such as fever, sore throat, and body aches, within a few weeks to months of infection. These symptoms may disappear after a few weeks, but the virus remains in the body and may continue to damage the immune system.


What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?

The symptoms of HIV/AIDS may vary, but may include:

  • Flu-like symptoms, such as fever, sore throat, and body aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Skin rashes
  • Memory loss


How is HIV/AIDS diagnosed?

Diagnosing HIV/AIDS typically involves a blood test to detect the presence of HIV antibodies. If HIV is detected, additional tests may be done to assess the extent of damage to the immune system and to identify any other infections or illnesses.


How can HIV/AIDS be treated?

Treatment for HIV/AIDS typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which uses a combination of medications to suppress the virus and help boost the immune system. It is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan based on individual needs.


What complications may occur with HIV/AIDS?

Complications of HIV/AIDS may include:

  • Increased risk of infections and other illnesses
  • Neurological problems, such as dementia
  • Wasting syndrome (severe weight loss)
  • Opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis or certain types of cancer


How can I prevent HIV/AIDS?

Taking steps to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, such as practicing safe sex, not sharing needles or syringes, and getting tested regularly for HIV, may help prevent the spread of the virus. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medications may also be used to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in certain high-risk populations.


Long-term management of HIV/AIDS

People with HIV/AIDS may require ongoing medical care and monitoring to manage their condition and prevent future complications. This may involve regular use of medications to suppress the virus and prevent opportunistic infections, as well as lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of complications.


What is recent research saying about HIV/AIDS?

Recent research in HIV/AIDS has focused on improving prevention, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as identifying new treatment options and risk factors. Some of the promising areas of research include:

  • Investigation of the impact of early diagnosis and treatment on HIV outcomes and transmission rates
  • Exploration of the use of new medications and therapies to help suppress the virus and reduce the risk of complications
  • Identification of new strategies for preventing HIV transmission, such as the development of an HIV vaccine and the use of long-acting HIV prevention medications
  • Investigation of the impact of social and structural factors, such as stigma and discrimination, on HIV transmission and treatment outcomes


Where can I go for more information on HIV/AIDS?

If you or someone you know has HIV/AIDS or wants more information on the condition, it is important to seek help from a healthcare provider who specializes in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The following organizations also provide information and resources on HIV/AIDS: