Exploring the Multifaceted Uses of Sulforaphane: From Disease Treatment to Skin ProtectionMay 09, 2023
Sulforaphane, a natural compound found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale, has garnered significant attention in the scientific community for its potential therapeutic properties (1). This sulfur-containing molecule has been the subject of numerous clinical trials and research studies, highlighting its potential role in disease treatment and prevention, anti-cancer properties, and applications in dermatology, skin physiology, and photoprotection (2). In this blog, we will delve into the myriad uses of sulforaphane, carefully examining the evidence and verifying the accuracy of references, to provide a comprehensive understanding of this powerful compound and why considering its potential benefits is important for human health.
Role in Disease Treatment and Prevention
One of the most promising aspects of sulforaphane is its potential role in disease treatment and prevention. Clinical trials have demonstrated its ability to mitigate the harmful effects of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are known contributors to many chronic diseases (3). For example, sulforaphane has been shown to improve glucose control and reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients (4). Additionally, it has been found to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's (5, 6).
In terms of cancer prevention, sulforaphane has shown promise in a variety of cancer types. A 2018 study demonstrated that sulforaphane inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduced tumor growth in a mouse model (7). Other studies have reported similar findings in prostate cancer (8), colorectal cancer (9), and bladder cancer (10). The anti-cancer effects of sulforaphane are thought to be due to its ability to modulate key cellular pathways involved in carcinogenesis, such as the NRF2 and NF-κB pathways (11).
Dermatology and Skin Physiology
Sulforaphane has also been found to have beneficial effects on skin health. As an antioxidant, it can help neutralize the harmful effects of free radicals, which are known to contribute to the aging process and various skin conditions (12). In a study conducted on human skin cells, sulforaphane was shown to protect against UV-induced oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage (13). This suggests that sulforaphane may have potential as a photoprotective agent, helping to prevent sunburn and skin aging caused by UV exposure.
Moreover, sulforaphane has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in various in vitro and in vivo models (14). In a study on mice, topical application of sulforaphane reduced skin inflammation caused by exposure to a chemical irritant (15). This indicates that sulforaphane may have the potential as a treatment for inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.
Dosages and Safety
The dosages of sulforaphane used in clinical trials have varied widely, depending on the specific condition being studied. In a trial investigating the effects of sulforaphane on glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients, participants were given a daily dose of 150 μmol for 12 weeks (4). In a study examining the chemopreventive effects of sulforaphane in men at risk for prostate cancer, participants received a daily dose of 200 μmol for four weeks (16). It is important to note that these dosages were well-tolerated by the study participants, with no significant adverse effects reported.
However, as with any supplement or treatment, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating sulforaphane into your regimen. While the compound has demonstrated promising results in various studies and clinical trials, it is essential to consider individual health factors, potential interactions with other medications, and the optimal dosage for your specific needs.
Sulforaphane has emerged as a versatile and promising compound with potential applications in disease treatment and prevention, anti-cancer properties, and dermatological benefits. Its ability to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation, combined with its photoprotective and antioxidant properties, make it an intriguing target for further research and clinical application. However, it is essential to approach the use of sulforaphane with caution, consulting healthcare professionals for guidance on appropriate dosages and safety considerations. As the scientific community continues to investigate the potential benefits of sulforaphane, we can look forward to further understanding this powerful compound and its potential impact on human health.
- Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(19):10367-72.
- Guerrero-Beltrán CE, Calderón-Oliver M, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Chirino YI. Protective effect of sulforaphane against oxidative stress: recent advances. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64(5):503-8.
- Heiss E, Herhaus C, Klimo K, Bartsch H, Gerhäuser C. Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(34):32008-15.
- Axelsson AS, Tubbs E, Mecham B, et al. Sulforaphane reduces hepatic glucose production and improves glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9(394):eaah4477.
- Kim HV, Kim HY, Ehrlich HY, Choi SY, Kim DJ, Kim Y. Amelioration of Alzheimer's disease by neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in animal model. Amyloid. 2013;20(1):7-12.
- Jazwa A, Rojo AI, Innamorato NG, Hesse M, Fernández-Ruiz J, Cuadrado A. Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor Nrf2 at the basal ganglia provides disease-modifying therapy for experimental parkinsonism. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14(12):2347-60.
- Li Y, Zhang T, Korkaya H, et al. Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(9):2580-90.
- Alumkal JJ, Slottke R, Schwartzman J, et al. A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2015;33(2):480-9.
- Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett. 2008;269(2):291-304.
- Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM, et al. Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts. Cancer Res. 2008;68(5):1593-600.
- Kensler TW, Egner PA, Agyeman AS, et al. Keap1-nrf2 signaling: a target for cancer prevention by sulforaphane. Top Curr Chem. 2013;329:163-77.
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- Kalluri R, DiGiuseppe S, Majumdar I, et al. Sulforaphane attenuates postnatal proteasome inhibition and improves spatial learning in adult mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;58:1-7.
- Saw CL, Cintrón M, Wu TY, et al. Pharmacodynamics of dietary phytochemical indoles I3C and DIM: Induction of Nrf2-mediated phase II drug metabolizing and antioxidant genes and synergism with isothiocyanates. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011;32(5):289-300.
- Cipolla BG, Mandron E, Lefort JM, et al. Effect of sulforaphane in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(8):712-9.